You beat cancer by knowing how you live, why you live and in the manner in which you live.
Cancer is a common name for a group of diseases characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells. Cell division is the mainstay of human life. Human body is made up of several organs like brain, lung, liver, stomach etc. and each organ is made up of cells. Organs and tissues are constituted by cells characteristic of that organ. Cells divide for growth of an organ, for repairing tissue damage and to maintain functions of the organ. The divided cells are the exact replica of the parent cell. Sometimes due to some faulty mechanism or due to factors which are unknown yet, the divided cells are abnormal i.e., their structure is not the same as that of its parent cells. They cannot discharge the functions like the normal cells but requires the same food as the normal cells. These cells start dividing and a large number of abnormal cells are produced. As a result of the proliferation of abnormal cells the body organs do not function normally and the persons nutrition is impaired rapidly. These cells cluster to form lumps, swellings, and sometimes produce ulcers in the respective organs.
However in the case of blood cancer -- Leukaemia - the abnormal cells start circulating throughout the blood streams so, no visible lump or swellings are observed. (Cancer is known by its different types like sarcoma, lymphoma, leukaemia, myeloma, carcinoma etc.). The most important characterisitc of cancer is that the cancer cells breakaway from the tissue or organ of origin and starts spreading to other parts of the body through lymphatic channels or cavities or blood vessels. They then deposit themselves in other parts of the body where it grows again. This is known as the metastasis. Because of this unique characterisitc it becomes difficult to cure or to control cancer when it has spread.
Clinical trials — also called research studies — test new treatments in people with cancer to find better ways to treat the disease.
Clinical trials test new:
The three phases of clinical trials:
Patients generally do not have to pay extra out-of-pocket costs for treatments studied as part of a trial. Every trial is different, but the clinical trial’s sponsor usually pays for all research-related costs and any special testing.
Typically, the patient or his or her insurance company is asked to pay for any routine tests, treatments, or procedures that would be required as part of standard cancer treatment. Before you join a clinical trial, you will receive an informed consent document that spells out exactly what you’ll have to pay for and what you won’t.
Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal, cancerous cells in one or both of the lungs. Lumps of these cells form cancerous tumours that make it difficult for the lung to function properly.
Smoking is the single greatest avoidable risk factor for cancer. Smoking causes around 90% of lung cancers.
There are benefits from quitting, once you stop smoking, your risk of lung cancer starts to go down. 10 years after you've given up, your lung cancer risk is about half that of a smoker.
This is a tricky one because sometimes there aren't any symptoms of lung cancer. One in four people don’t even have symptoms when their lung cancer is advanced. In other people, symptoms that may suggest lung cancer can include:
In some of these people, exposure to secondhand smoke. Yes nonsmokers can - and do - get lung cancer. Some cases of lung cancer develop after a long-time smoker has quit, although the risk decreases with time.
To treat lung cancer, surgery to remove the tumour, radiotherapy (X-rays directed at the site of the tumour that kill or shrink cancer cells), chemotherapy (drugs that kill all fast-growing cells in the body including cancer cells), and experimental treatments are all part of your doctors toolbox. Before deciding on which treatment or combination of treatments is right for you, your doctor will have to determine how advanced your lung cancer is, a process called staging.
The best way to prevent lung cancer is to avoid smoking and to avoid breathing in other people's smoke. If you smoke, quit. While the risk for former smokers remains elevated when compared to a non-smoker, it continues to fall with each year of smoking cessation. In fact, 10 years after you've given up, your lung cancer risk is about half that of a smoker.
There is some evidence that eating a healthy diet rich in fibre, fruit and vegetables may help reduce the risk of lung cancer.
Breast cancer occurs when a malignant tumor forms in the breast tissue. The cancer can be found in the breast itself or in the ducts and lymph nodes that surround the breast.
When cancer spreads from its original location in the breast to another part of the body such as the brain, it is called metastatic breast cancer, not brain cancer. Doctors sometimes call this "distant" disease.
All cancers involve changes in a person's genes. Usually, several changes are required before a cancer develops. If a person inherits a genetic mutation (change or defect), from a parent, that person has a higher risk for developing cancer. It is currently believed that less than 10% of breast cancers involve an inherited genetic mutation. Most happen because of genetic mutations that occur during the person's lifetime. If a woman's mother, grandmother, aunts, or sisters developed breast cancer before menopause, she may have a greater chance of getting breast cancer than a woman with no family history. The same gene may increase risk for ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. Genetic testing may help determine if a woman has inherited a breast cancer gene.
A mammogram may be slightly uncomfortable, but it shouldn't hurt. In order to get a clear picture, the breast is compressed between two flat plates. It lasts only a few seconds. It is a good idea to schedule a mammogram after your menstrual period when your breasts are less likely to be tender.
Breast cancer is not contagious. A woman cannot "catch" breast cancer from other women who have the disease. Also, breast cancer is not caused by an injury to the breast. Most women who develop breast cancer do not have any known risk factors or a history of the disease in their families.
Some studies have found that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of breast cancer. The benefit appears to be related to how long the woman breastfeeds. This is a difficult thing to study in the U.S., but 1½ years of breastfeeding seems to be needed to impact risk.
Injuries to the breasts do not cause breast cancer to develop. Often injuries lead to the discovery of a tumor because it causes women to pay more attention to their breasts, but bumps and bruises do not cause tumors to appear.
When breast cancer first develops, there may be no symptoms at all. But as the cancer grows, it can cause changes that women should watch for. You can help safeguard your health by learning the following warning signs of breast cancer.
Standard treatments for breast cancer include
Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon and rectum that begins with the development of pre-cancerous polyps from the lining of the colon and rectum.
Polyps are mushroom-like growths that form when cells lining the colon grow, divide and reproduce in an unhealthy, disorderly way. Polyps can become cancerous over time, invading the colon wall and surrounding blood vessels, and spreading to other parts of the body.
The exact causes of colorectal cancer are unknown, but the disease appears to be caused by both inherited and lifestyle factors. Lifestyle factors - such as cigarette smoking, lack of physical exercise, and obesity - may increase the risk of developing the disease. Genetic factors may determine a person's susceptibility to the disease,whereas dietary and other lifestyle factors may determine which at-risk individuals actually go on to develop the disease. Most of the time no identifiable cause is found for the development of colorectal cancer in any given individual, and it is simply due to random genetic changes that have occurred in the cells lining the colon or rectum.
Men and women ages 50 or older are at almost equal risk of developing colorectal cancer. Those who have a personal or family history of colorectal cancer or polyps are at higher risk of developing the disease. Anyone who has a long-term personal history of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn's Disease) also is at higher risk.
See your doctor for yearly screenings if you are aged 50 or older. Be sure to maintain a diet low in animal fat and high in fruits, vegetables and fiber. Get regular exercise and avoid cigarette smoking. Keep alcohol consumption in moderation. Colon Cancer screening tests can identify and allow removal of pre-cancerous polyps and prevent the development of cancer.
Screening tests are the best way to find and remove polyps before they become cancerous, or to find an early cancer, when treatment can be most effective. Several screening options exist. These include the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema, and colonoscopy. Patients should talk to their colorectal surgeon or other healthcare provider to find out which screening method is right for them.
Colon and rectal surgeons are experts in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. They have completed advanced surgical training in the treatment of these diseases as well as full general surgical training. Board-certified colon and rectal surgeons complete residencies in general surgery and colon and rectal surgery, and pass intensive examinations conducted by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. They are well-versed in the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the colon, rectum and anus and are able to perform routine screening examinations and surgically treat conditions if indicated to do so.